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Chinese Lexical Database

Overview and Coverage

The Chinese Lexical Database (CLD) is a comprehensive monolingual lexical database of Chinese consisting the Simplified Chinese Lexical Database (CLD-SC) and the Traditional Chinese Lexical Database (CLD-TC) modules.

Each module contains about 250,000 entries covering general vocabulary and important technical terms. In addition, approximately one million proper nouns and some 250,000 technical terms are also available (see chincome.htm and cjeterm.htm).

Developed by our team of experienced Chinese editors and linguists over many years, the CLD is a significant contribution to the field of Chinese lexicography. CLD is especially suitable for natural language processing (NLP) applications, such as:

  1. segmentation for machine translation (MT)
  2. information retrieval (IR)
  3. morphological analysis (MA) including tokenization/segmentation and POS tagging
  4. input method editors (IME)
  5. named entity recognition (NER)

Attributes

Each entry is accompanied by various attributes, such as:

  1. phonological information, such as pinyin zhuyin fuhao -- IPA and others also possible
  2. grammatical information such as part-of-speech codes
  3. semantic classification codes such as type of proper noun
  4. morphological information such as derivational affixes and binding valency codes.

To derive full benefit of the CLD, it should be used in conjunction with our comprehensive databases for proper nouns, especially personal and place names, described at chinname.htm.

Editorial Policy

The Simplified Chinese in the CLD-SC is not merely a code-conversion equivalent of the Traditional Chinese version (CLD-TC). It has been carefully proofread to ensure accuracy both on the orthographic and the lexemic levels (similar to American 'color' vs. British 'colour' as opposed to American 'gas' vs. British 'petrol'). For example, 'laser' in SC is 激光 jīguāng but in TC it is 雷射 léishè (see The Pitfalls and Complexities of Chinese to Chinese Conversion).

A unique feature of our editorial policy is that the readings data (pinyin and zhuyin) take into account the differences in pronunciation between Taiwan and the PRC. Thus whereas 期待 'to expect' is qīdài in the SC database, it is qídài in the TC database, which corresponds to how this word is pronounced in the PRC and Taiwan respectively. For details, see SC and TC Chinese Pinyin Database.

Description of Fields
1 ID Uniquely identifies each entry based on hanzi, pinyin, POS and TYPE.
2 POS Each entry is accompanied by a rich set of part of speech codes and other grammatical and morphological attributes. See chinpos.htm for POS code definitions.
3 TYPE A subclassification that identifies the semantic properties of the headword or gives supplementary information such as grammatical attributes. See cpostype.htm for TYPE code definitions.
4 VALENCY The binding valency codes indicate the degree of binding between a stem/lexeme and an affix, as follows:
  • 0   Free form
  • 1   Always bound
  • 2   Sometimes bound
See also cpostype.htm.
5 SC HANZI SC lexeme encoded in UTF-8
6 PINYIN Pinyin plus tone with hyphen separating syllables. Zhuyin, Wade-Giles, IPA and various other romanization systems also available.
  • v   "u" plus umlaut, e.g."lv" is "l + u + umlaut"
  • 1-4   tones 1 to 4
  • 0   neutral tone
7 RANK Rank based on the occurrence of frequency in corpora and lexical sources.
  • A   High frequency ranking
  • B   Medium frequency ranking
  • C   Low frequency ranking
  • D   Rare: SC character not in GB or TC character not in Big Five
  • X   Single characters rarely used independently or used only in classical Chinese. Only nouns are given.
8 WEB RANK Relative rank based on occurrence in Chinese web resources. See also chinfreq.htm for information on our detailed statistical data for Chinese.
Data Sample for Simplified Chinese
ID POS TYPE VALENCY SC_HANZI PINYIN RANK WEB RANK
S0000302AaE0东家长西家短dong1-jia1-chang2-xi1-jia1-duan3C0111865
S0000303AaE0东家食西家宿dong1-jia1-shi2-xi1-jia1-su4C0367883
S0000304AaNC0东家之子dong1-jia1-zhi1-zi3C0125173
S0000305AaE0东家效颦dong1-jia1-xiao4-pin2C0322201
S0185230AaNPP0东架松dong1-jia4-song1C0333686
S0185231AaNPG0东河dong1-he2C0066001
S0185231AbNPP0东河dong1-he2C0066001
S0185232AaNPP0东河镇dong1-he2-zhen4C0205863
S0185233AaNPP0东河沿dong1-he2-yan2C0162011
S0185234AaNPP0东河区dong1-he2-qu1C0120000
S0185235AaNPP0东河漕胡同dong1-he2-cao2-hu2-tong2C0297098
S0185236AaNPP0东河道dong1-he2-dao4C0192751
S0185237AaNPG0东花dong1-hua1C0165125
S0185238AaNPP0东花厅胡同dong1-hua1-ting1-hu2-tong2C0389706
S0185239AaNPP0东花枝胡同dong1-hua1-zhi1-hu2-tong2C9999998
S0185240AaNPG0东霞dong1-xia2C0205863
S0185241AaNPP0东会村dong1-hui4-cun1C0331481
S0000306AcNC0东海dong1-hai3A0009255
S0000306AaNPG0东海dong1-hai3A0009255
S0000306AbNPP0东海dong1-hai3A0009255
S0185242AaNPP0东海县dong1-hai3-xian4C0078031
S0000307AaE0东海扬尘dong1-hai3-yang2-chen2C0263750
S0000308AaE0东海捞针dong1-hai3-lao1-zhen1C0124028
S0430527AxU0东海舰队dong1-hai3-jian4-dui40064698
S0000309AaE0东海桑田dong1-hai3-sang1-tian2C0090763
S0000310AaNPOe0东海大学dong1-hai3-da4-xue2C0069472
S0185243AaNPP0东外大街dong1-wai4-da4-jie1C0166158
S0000311AbNC0东郭dong1-guo1C0069927
S0000311AaNPS0东郭dong1-guo1C0069927
S0000312AaE 0东郭先生dong1-guo1-xian1-sheng1C0101330
S0000313AaNC0东郭履dong1-guo1-lv3C0267748
S0185244AaNPP0东革新里dong1-ge2-xin1-li3C0234655
S0000314AbNC0东岳dong1-yue4C0065236
S0000314AaNPG0东岳dong1-yue4C0065236
S0185245AaNPP0东冠英胡同dong1-guan1-ying1-hu2-tong2C0297098
S0185246AaNPP0东官房胡同dong1-guan1-fang2-hu2-tong2C0287702
S0000315AaNC0东干dong1-gan1C0116451
S0185247AaNPP0东管头dong1-guan3-tou2C0194627
S0185248AaNPP0东管头前街dong1-guan3-tou2-qian2-jie1C0239988
S0185249AaNPP0东莞dong1-guan1A0005940
S0185250AaNPP0东莞市dong1-guan1-shi4B0020543
S0000316AaNC0东岸dong1-an4C0028105
S0430528AaNPM0东岩dong1-yan20140756
S0185251AaNPG0东喜dong1-xi3C0174494
S0185252AaNPG0东旗dong1-qi2C0215119
S0185253AaNPG0东起dong1-qi3C0044840
S0185254AaNPG0东吉dong1-ji2C0163968
S0185255AaNPP0东吉祥胡同dong1-ji2-xiang2-hu2-tong2C0267748
S0185256AaNPP0东弓匠胡同dong1-gong1-jiang4-hu2-tong2C0379680
S0185257AaNPP0东旧帘子胡同dong1-jiu4-lian2-zi3-hu2-tong2C0389706
S0185258AaNPP0东牛角胡同dong1-niu2-jiao3-hu2-tong2C9999998
S0185259AaNPPp0东京dong1-jing1A0003286
S0000317AaNPOt0东京影展dong1-jing1-ying3-zhan3C0135293
S0185260AaNPP0东京畿道dong1-jing1-ji1-dao4C0285926
S0000318AaNC0东京股市dong1-jing1-gu3-shi4C0044245
S0430529AxU0东京国际电影节dong1-jing1-guo2-ji4-dian4-ying3-jie20109302
S0430530AaNPOe0东京大学dong1-jing1-da4-xue20048434
S0000320AaNPPs0东京都dong1-jing1-du1A0037612
S0000321AaNPPg0东京湾dong1-jing1-wan1C0092752
S0185261AaNPP0东教场胡同dong1-jiao1-chang2-hu2-tong2C0379680
S0185262AaNPP0东教胡同dong1-jiao1-hu2-tong2C9999998
S0185263AaNPP0东局村dong1-ju2-cun1C0389706
S0185264AaNPG0东玉dong1-yu4C0173504
S0185265AaNPP0东玉河dong1-yu4-he2C0281154
S0185266AaNPG0东琴dong1-qin2C0306270
S0185267AaNP0东琴科dong1-qin2-ke1C9999998
S0185268AaNPP0东区dong1-qu1C0015751
S0000322AaNC0东隅dong1-yu2C0092620
S0000323AaNC0东君dong1-jun1C0083281
S0185269AaNPG0东慧dong1-hui4C0234034
S0185270AaNPG0东月dong1-yue4C0154187
S0185271AaNPG0东健dong1-jian4C0162973
S0185272AaNPP0东源dong1-yuan2C0066316
S0185273AaNPP0东源县dong1-yuan2-xian4C0132252
S0185274AaNPP0东湖dong1-hu2A0023947
S0185275AaNPP0东湖渠dong1-hu2-qu2C0257545
S0185276AaNPP0东湖区dong1-hu2-qu1C0124918
S0000325AaNC0东胡dong1-hu2B0094711
S0430531AaN 0东胡史dong1-hu2-shi30335767
S0185277AaNPP0东五道口村dong1-wu3-dao4-kou3-cun1C0379680
S0185278AaNPP0东五里店村dong1-wu3-li3-dian4-cun1C0348931
S0185279AaNPP0东交民巷dong1-jiao1-min2-xiang4C0067971
S0185280AaNPG0东光dong1-guang1C0067971
S0185280AbNPP0东光dong1-guang1C0067971
S0185281AaNPP0东光县dong1-guang1-xian4C0124918
S0185282AaNPP0东光镇dong1-guang1-zhen4C0265382
S0185283AaNPP0东光胡同dong1-guang1-hu2-tong2C0281932
S0185284AaNPP0东公街dong1-gong1-jie1C0238884
S0417865AaNPW0东公文dong1-gong1-wen2C0296092
S0185285AaNPG0东厚dong1-hou4C0314198
S0185286AaNPP0东口袋胡同dong1-kou3-dai4-hu2-tong2C9999998
S0000324AbNC0东向dong1-xiang4C0066343
S0000324AaNPG0东向dong1-xiang4C0066343
S0185287AaNPP0东后河沿dong1-hou4-he2-yan2C0345875
S0185288AaNPP0东幸福街dong1-xing4-fu2-jie1C0314198
S0185289AaNPG0东康dong1-kang1C0162606
S0185290AaNPG0东江dong1-jiang1C0047569
S0185291AaNPG0东浩dong1-hao4C0134739
S0185292AaNPP0东港dong1-gang3C0021625
S0185293AaNPP0东港区dong1-gang3-qu1C0114975
S0185294AaNPP0东港市dong1-gang3-shi4C0103069
S0000326AaNC0东皇dong1-huang2C0099452
S0185295AaNPP0东皇城根南街dong1-huang2-cheng2-gen1-nan2-jie1C0210069
S0185296AaNPP0东皇城根北街dong1-huang2-cheng2-gen1-bei3-jie1C0209528
S0185297AcNA0东航dong1-hang2C0042400
S0185297AaNPG0东航dong1-hang2C0042400
S0185297AbNPW0东航dong1-hang2C0042400
S0430532AxU0东行航程dong1-xing2-hang2-cheng20249024
S0000327AaNC0东郊dong1-jiao1C0027721
S0185298AaNPG0东香dong1-xiang1C0196574
S0185299AaNPP0东香河园dong1-xiang1-he2-yuan2C0359072
S0185300AaNPP0东高地dong1-gao1-di4C0117818
S0185301AaNPP0东高房胡同dong1-gao1-fang2-hu2-tong2C0335767
S0185302AaNPG0东合dong1-he2C0141765
S0185303AaNPP0东合盛dong1-he2-cheng2C9999998
S0185304AaNP0东克尔dong1-ke4-er3C0297098
S0185305AaNP0东克尔曼dong1-ke4-er3-man4C0314198
S0185306AaNPG0东国dong1-guo2C0084845
S0185307AaNPG0东根dong1-gen1C0225810
S0185308AaNP0东佐夫dong1-zuo3-fu1C0338095
S0000330AaE 0东差西误dong1-cha1-xi1-wu4C0302661
S0417866AaNPP0东沙岛dong1-sha1-dao3C0166966
S0185309AaNPP0东沙群岛dong1-sha1-qun2-dao3C0138423
S0185310AaNP0东塞尔dong1-sai1-er3C0359072
S0185311AaNPG0东才dong1-cai2C0152203
S0000328AaNC0东作dong1-zuo4C0143546
S0000329AaE 0东作既失秋成无望dong1-zuo4-ji4-shi1-qiu1-cheng2-wu2-wang4C9999998
S0185312AaNPP0东三亲家坟dong1-san1-qin1-jia1-fen2C0389706
S0185313AaNPP0东三环中路dong1-san1-huan2-zhong1-lu4C0130437
S0185314AaNPP0东三环北路dong1-san1-huan2-bei3-lu4C0045375
S0185315AaNPP0东三巷dong1-san1-xiang4C0244629
S0000331AaNC0东三省dong1-san1-sheng3C0059671
S0000332AaNP0东三省事宜条约dong1-san1-sheng3-shi4-yi2-tiao2-yue1C0279710
S0185316AaNPP0东三条dong1-san1-tiao2C0143990
S0185323AaNPP0东三道街dong1-san1-dao4-jie1C0163968
S0185324AaNPG0东山dong1-shan1C0009387
S0185324AbNPP0东山dong1-shan1C0009387
S0185325AaNPP0东山县dong1-shan1-xian4C0106441
S0185326AaNPP0东山镇dong1-shan1-zhen4C0109070
S0185327AaNPP0东山区dong1-shan1-qu1C0040454
S0000334AaE0东山高卧dong1-shan1-gao1-wo4C0245022
S0000335AaE0东山再起dong1-shan1-zai4-qi3A0029186
S0000336AaE0东山之志dong1-shan1-zhi1-zhi4C0124011
S0000337AaNC0东山法门dong1-shan1-fa3-men2C0200568
S0185328AaNPP0东山坡一里dong1-shan1-po1-yi1-li3C0351988
S0185329AaNPP0东山坡三里dong1-shan1-po1-san1-li3C0295025
S0185330AaNPP0东山坡二里dong1-shan1-po1-er4-li3C0379680
S0000338AaNC0东司dong1-si1C0175606
S0185331AaNPP0东四块玉南街dong1-si4-kuai4-yu4-nan2-jie1C0262100
S0185332AaNPP0东四块玉北街dong1-si4-kuai4-yu4-bei3-jie1C0292191
S0185333AaNPP0东四头条dong1-si4-tou2-tiao2C0243492
S0185334AaNPP0东四九条dong1-si4-jiu3-tiao2C0214285
S0185345AaNPP0东四西大街dong1-si4-xi1-da4-jie1C0121928
S0185346AaNPP0东四道街dong1-si4-dao4-jie1C0232179
S0185347AaNPP0东四道口dong1-si4-dao4-kou3C0272852
S0185348AaNPP0东四南大街dong1-si4-nan2-da4-jie1C0119725
S0185351AaNPP0东四北大街dong1-si4-bei3-da4-jie1C0115537
S0185353AaNPG0东子dong1-zi3C0117852
S0000339AbNC0东市dong1-shi4C0048358
S0000339AaNPP0东市dong1-shi4C0048358
S0185355AaNPP0东市场五巷dong1-shi4-chang2-wu3-xiang4C9999998
S0185363AaNPP0东市区dong1-shi4-qu1C0139879
S0000340AaE 0东市朝衣dong1-shi4-chao2-yi1C0258023
S0185364AaNPW0东志远dong1-zhi4-yuan3C0379680
S0000341AaNC0东指dong1-zhi3C0097818
S0000342AaE 0东支西吾dong1-zhi1-xi1-wu2C0279004
S0185365AaNP0东斯dong1-si1C0169749
S0185366AaNP0东斯科伊dong1-si1-ke1-yi1C0292191
S0000343AaE 0东施效颦dong1-shi1-xiao4-pin2C0068999
S0185367AaNPP0东枝dong1-zhi1C0190400
S0185368AaNPP0东至县dong1-zhi4-xian4C0115701
S0185369AaNPG0东耳dong1-er3C0158655